More than any other illness, rhinoviruses (rhin means “nose”) are associated with the common cold. Rhinoviruses may also cause some sore throats, ear infections, sinus infections, and to a lesser degree, pneumonia and bronchiolitis (infection of the small breathing passages of the lungs).
The average child has 8 to 10 colds during the first 2 years of her life. If she spends time in child care settings where she’ll be exposed to other children with colds, she may catch even more colds.
Rhinoviruses are spread easily through person-to-person contact. When a child with a rhinovirus infection has a runny nose, nasal secretions get onto her hands and from there onto tables, toys, and other surfaces. Your child might touch the hands or skin of another youngster or toys that have been contaminated by the virus and then touch her own eyes or nose, infecting herself. She might breathe in airborne viruses spread by a sneeze or cough.
Although your child can develop a cold at any time of the year, these infections are most common during autumn and spring.
Signs and Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of the common cold are familiar to everyone. Your child’s cold may start with a watery, runny nose that has a clear discharge. Later, the discharge becomes thicker and is often colored brownish, gray, or greenish. This colored nasal discharge is normal as the child begins to get over the cold.
Children may also develop symptoms such as
In some children, pus will appear on the tonsils, which could be a sign of a streptococcal infection
The incubation period for a rhinovirus infection is usually 2 to 3 days. Symptoms generally persist for 10 to 14 days, sometimes less.
What You Can Do
When your child has a cold, make sure she gets enough rest. She should drink extra fluid if she has fever. If she is uncomfortable, talk to your pediatrician about giving her acetaminophen to reduce her fever. Don’t give her over-the-counter cold remedies or cough medicines without first checking with your doctor. These over-the-counter medicines do not kill the virus and, in most circumstances, do not help with the symptoms.
When to Call Your Pediatrician
If your infant is 3 months or younger and develops cold symptoms, contact your pediatrician. Complications ranging from pneumonia to bronchiolitis are much more likely to develop in very young children.
Older youngsters generally don’t need to be seen by a pediatrician when they have a cold. Nevertheless, contact your doctor if your older youngster has symptoms such as
Lips or nails that turn blue
Noisy or difficult breathing
A persistent cough
Ear pain, which may indicate an ear infection
How Is the Diagnosis Made?
Colds are typically diagnosed by observing your child’s symptoms. In general, it is impractical to conduct laboratory tests to identify the organism that may be infecting a child with cold symptoms.
Most rhinovirus infections are mild and do not require any specific treatment. Antibiotics are not effective against the common cold and other viral infections.
What Is the Prognosis?
Most colds go away on their own without complications.
Keep an infant younger than 3 months from having close contact with children or adults who have colds.
Make sure your child washes her hands frequently, which will reduce the chances of getting the virus.