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Ages & Stages

Low Breast Milk Supply: 5 Steps That Can Help

By: Hailey Nelson, MD, FAAP, IBCLC

Navigating concerns for low breast milk supply can be a lot of stress for some families. This may be even more so during the baby formula shortage if you need to supplement with formula. Here are five steps that can help if you're looking to boost your milk supply, whether you are exclusively nursing your infant or supplementing with formula or solid foods.

1. Visit your child's health care provider.

All mothers share the concern about their milk being enough for their baby. If you are worried about breast milk supply, visit your child's pediatrician⁠—we are happy to help! Your pediatrician will start by looking at how your infant is growing. A baby who is tracking along their growth curve as they should is very reassuring.

Sometimes babies are fussy due to colic or other factors, which may not be related to the volume or amount of feeding. Pediatricians can also work with you to identify factors that can help increase your breast milk supply or resolve breastfeeding difficulties, including latching issues and breastfeeding positions. An evaluation by a board-certified lactation consultant can also help you discover any other possible causes of low breast milk supply.

In addition, your pediatrician may also be able to connect you with resources if you are struggling to find baby formula for your infant.

2. Tech check your breast pump.

Effective milk extraction is the best way to help keep up your milk supply. If you are pumping and notice that there is a decrease in the volume you are able to produce, check your pump equipment. Ensuring a proper flange fit can optimize pumping. It is also a good idea to inspect the pump valves. Over time, they can become worn and reduce the effectiveness of your pump.

For information about pump settings, you can look to your pump's manufacturer. Some even have help lines you can call to troubleshoot pump-setting issues. However, it is best to seek the help of a lactation consultant to determine which pump settings work best for you.

Also, consider if the type of pump you're using is best for your specific needs. A double electric pump is best when needing to express breastmilk. Manual or hand pumps can work for short-term use, but are not ideal when you are planning to return to work outside the home or pump longer term. If you do not have an electric pump, your insurance may be able to cover it. Talk with your pediatrician or a lactation consultant to learn more.

3. If you are supplementing with formula, offer breast milk first.

If you are supplementing your breast-fed baby's diet with formula, start feedings with available breast milk first. Then if needed, give baby formula to meet your infant's growing nutritional demands. Be sure to follow food safety guidelines for breast milk and baby formula. If either are left out to long, especially once a bottle has been used, they can be contaminated with oral bacteria and make your infant sick.

4. Take time to care for you.

Staying hydrated and getting good nutrition are very important to breast milk production. You need to take care and nourish yourself so you can provide nutrition to your baby. There are no special tricks or products needed; specific foods or supplements you may see marketed to promote breastmilk production are not necessary. Instead, focus on eating healthful foods and drinking plenty of water!

Be mindful, too, of your own stress level. The formula shortage can be incredibly anxiety-inducing for parents, especially when they are already managing the challenge of being a new parent. During this time, be extra mindful of your stress level and get enough sleep and physical activity to keep your mind and body healthy.

5. Consider other health factors.

If you've noticed a lower-than-usual milk supply, consider other health factors. For example, the return of your cycle or thyroid issues can affect breast milk supply. Infections can also affect your ability to make breast milk. Some other factors that could increase the risk of low milk: your baby was born pre-term: you had a cesarian delivery or difficult delivery; you delivered multiples, or you had a previous breast biopsy or surgery. Consider seeing your primary care provider or OB/GYN for further evaluation if you have any health concerns.


As the old saying goes, "It takes a village." So, reach out to your village for connection and support. If you are running low on formula your baby needs, for example, ask friends and family to keep an eye out for it when they go grocery shopping. And don't hesitate to reach out to your pediatrician with any health or feeding concerns. Working together and helping each other can help ensure your baby gets the nutrition they need until formula production ramps back up and/or your breastmilk supply is meeting their growing needs.

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About the Author

Hailey Nelson, MD, FAAP, IBCLC, is a complex care pediatrician at Valley Children’s Hospital in Madera, California. Dr. Nelson enjoys working with children of all ages and abilities and is especially passionate about providing the best possible care to medically fragile children and their families. She is also a licensed breastfeeding consultant, certified by the International Board of Lactation Consultants to support nursing mothers and their babies.

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American Academy of Pediatrics (Copyright © 2022)
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
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