During a Wildfire:
While burning, the major hazards of wildfires to children are fire and smoke mostly because their lungs are still growing. Resulting health effects include:
Chest tightness or pain
Shortness of breath
Burning or stinging of the nose, throat, and eyes
Dizziness or lightheadedness
Steps to Minimize Harmful Health Effects and Protect Children:
Stay indoors to minimize smoke exposure. Close all windows, doors, and any other openings. Put your air-conditioner on re-circulate if possible and avoid activities that may add to indoor air contamination, such as cooking with a gas stove. High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters or other room air filtration systems that do not generate ozone are recommended.
When in a car, keep windows and vents closed. Turn the air-conditioning to re-circulate.
Do NOT rely on masks to filter contaminants, since masks do not work when not fitted correctly. Smaller sized masks may appear to fit a child's face, but no manufacturers recommend their use for children. If your children are in an area with bad air quality, take them to an indoor environment with cleaner air, rather than give them a mask. Humidifiers or breathing through a wet washcloth do not prevent breathing in smoke.
Outdoor activity should be minimized, and athletic and physical education stopped until air quality improves.
Evacuate the area if recommended by authorities. Be sure to bring immunization records, all medication (taken by each family member) and other disaster supplies with you.
Children with chronic respiratory problems, such as asthma, are at increased risk. Children at increased risk should remain in a clean-air environment and be kept indoors until air quality improves. They should be monitored closely for signs or symptoms of harmful health effects as listed above. If they are showing these symptoms and their usual medications cannot bring them under control, they should be taken to a nearby medical facility, despite the risks of traveling.
After a Wildfire:
The aftermath of a wildfire also poses dangers for children.
Take these steps to ensure your child's safety following a wildfire:
If you evacuated your home or area, before returning you should:
Wait to be directed by authorities that it is safe to return
Know the location of the nearest medical facility
Be sure water supply, electricity, and phone lines are restored
Block off unsafe or unclean areas to keep children out
Make sure your house is structurally sound
Arrange for removal of ash and debris by professionals or adults (children and adolescents should not take part in clean up)
Check with your water provider to make sure that your water is okay to drink. If the water provider indicates that the water may have bacterial contamination, you should heat it to a rolling boil for 1 minute to kill potentially harmful bacteria and other microscopic organisms before drinking. If the water provider indicates that the water may have chemical contamination, you should use bottled water or use a water filter known to remove the chemical(s) of concern. For information about filters, see NSF Drinking Water Filters, Testing and Treatment or EWG (Environmental Working Group) Water Filter Guide. Allow water to cool before giving it to children.
Keep in mind that loss of power to refrigerators and freezers can cause food to spoil. If the food has been warmed to room temperature for more than 2 hours, throw it out and do not eat it. For more information about food safety, click here.
Keep your child away from physical hazards. Potential physical hazards include:
Debris such as broken glass, wires, nails, wood, metal, plastics, and other objects
Ash pits, which are holes full of hot ashes created by burned trees and stumps
Unstable building structures, including flooring, stairways, railings, etc.
Stored items that may have moved into unstable positions
Burned or damaged trees, since they may be unstable and fall
Roadways, bridges, and other outdoor structures that may be damaged and unstable
Animals that are deceased, stray, injured, or wild
Altered automobile traffic because of clean-up activities, since there may be heavier traffic in areas where children play or travel
Ash is a particularly important hazard, as it may be irritating to the skin, nose, and throat, and can be difficult to clean up. Do NOT allow your child to play in ash and clean it up as soon as possible. When cleaning, avoid spreading ash into the air. Wet it down before attempting to remove it. Do NOT use leaf blowers or vacuums. Even if you are careful, it is easy to stir up dust that may contain hazardous substances. Children and adolescents should not take part in the clean-up.
If your child has had contact with any potentially hazardous substance or has been playing in a fire-damaged area, wash their hands and any other exposed body part thoroughly, including flushing of the eyes. Remove any exposed clothing and wash separately as soon as possible.
Monitor your child closely, particularly if your child has a chronic respiratory condition like asthma. Watch for symptoms such as coughing; wheezing; chest tightness; burning eyes, nose, or mouth; dizziness or lightheadedness. Move your child indoors or to a cleaner environment and bathe them (follow instructions in bullet above) if they show these symptoms. If your child has asthma or other respiratory conditions, give them their appropriate medication. If the symptoms do not improve, seek medical care right away.
Psychological Effects of Wildfires:
Be alert to your child's emotional health and psychological well-being. Grief associated with loss, stress, or anxiety from the disaster may cause emotional distress.
Signs of emotional distress can be different depending on your child's age, and include:
Clinging behavior and fear of separation
Uncooperative behaviors (for example, argumentative)
Physical complaints (for example, stomach aches, headaches, generally feeling unwell)
Eating or sleeping too much or too little
Returning to babyish behaviors
Fatigue, both physical and emotional
Withdrawal from previously enjoyed activities or friends
Difficulty concentrating or focusing at home or on school work
Aggression or outbursts of anger
Decline in school performance
Continue your child's established routines as much as possible and provide a listening ear. Encourage your child to express feelings through a variety of ways, such as music, art, journaling, talking, or playing with toys or dolls. Avoid exposing your child to excessive or unnecessary TV or other media coverage of the wildfire. Answer your child's questions openly and honestly, as appropriate for your child's age. Be patient and remain calm, because children often take cues on how to act based on their parents and their environment. Your reactions communicate an unspoken message to your child and may add to a child's feeling of distress.
In some cases, the whole family may benefit from supportive counseling. It is important to remember that it is not a sign of mental illness to accept professional support during times of emotional distress.